Monday, July 2, 2018

Arbitration in the GCC: An Overview of the Choices

When parties arbitrate in Oman, the most popular arbitral framework is ad hoc arbitration, usually using the Gulf Cooperation Council (“GCC”) arbitration rules or the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (“UNCITRAL”) rules.  In other cases, parties agree to have arbitration in Oman that is administered by an outside arbitration centre; while there is no arbitration centre in Oman, there are quite a few arbitration centres throughout the GCC.  This article will provide an overview of some of the most popular arbitration centres in the region.


The International Chamber of Commerce (“ICC”) is the most established arbitration centre in the world.  The ICC is headquartered in Paris and has a number of branch offices throughout the world.  The ICC recently opened a representative office in Abu Dhabi for the Middle East and North Africa (“MENA”) region.  Prior to opening the new office in MENA, ICC arbitration had been long established in Oman.  The ICC secretariat is considerably sophisticated, and the ICC arbitration rules are highly regarded, widely used and considered a truly international set of arbitration rules.


The DIFC-LCIA was established in 2008.  It can be considered a joint venture between the Dubai International Financial Centre (“DIFC”) and the London Court of International Arbitration (“LCIA”) which is one of the most established arbitration centres in the world.  The DIFC-LCIA rules are modeled on the LCIA rules.  There are a number of notable features contained in the DIFC-LCIA; of particular importance is the fee structure.  In comparison to the other rules that are outlined in this article, the centre’s and arbitrator’s fees for a DIFC-LCIA administered arbitration are calculated on an hourly rate system rather than an ad valorum scale (fixed fee based on the amount in dispute).


The Dubai International Arbitration Centre (“DIAC”) was first established in 1994 as the Centre for Commercial Conciliation and Arbitration.  DIAC, a popular arbitration centre in Dubai, uses rules that came into effect in 2007; however, notably, the DIAC has drafted a new set of rules that are waiting for Royal Decree in order to come into force.  The new rules contain a number of notable features, namely that the default seat of arbitration under the rules will be the DIFC, which is governed by common law rather than civil law.  The new rules are also anticipated to include provisions relating to the governing of third-party funding.  It is expected that the new DIAC rules will come into effect in 2018.  The new rules will significantly update the 2007 rules and will be the topic of a later blog post (once they come into effect).


The Abu Dhabi Commercial Conciliation & Arbitration Centre (“ADCCAC”) is a local arbitration centre that mainly deals with domestic arbitrations.  Its arbitration clause is contained mainly in contracts that are entered into with United Arab Emirates (“UAE”) public entities.  The ADCCAC rules came into effect in 2013 and contain various modern provisions.  ADCCAC provides hearing facilities free of charge to parties conducting arbitrations on their premises.


The Bahrain Chamber for Dispute Resolution (“BCDR”) was established by Legislative Decree No. 30 of 2009.  It operates in partnership with the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”).  The AAA is an international arbitration centre with various offices throughout the world.  In addition to administering arbitrations and appointing arbitrators, it administers mediations and runs various training services.  The BCDR-AAA has a modern set of arbitration rules that came into effect in 2017.

GCC Arbitration Centre

The GCC Commercial Arbitration Centre (“GCCCAC”) was established in March 1995 by the GCC Supreme Council and is based in Bahrain.  The centre is considered a regional arbitration authority which is independent from the six GCC member states, including the host state.  It has an independent legal entity and enjoys administrative, financial and technical independence.  Simultaneously, it is considered one of the GCC organs.  The GCCCAC rules came into effect in 1994 and were amended in 1999.  The GCCCAC administers arbitrations and its rules are commonly used in ad hoc arbitrations in Oman.

Cairo Regional Centre for Arbitration

The Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration (“CRCICA”) was established in 1979 by an international agreement signed between the Egyptian government and the Asian African Legal Consultative Organization (“AALCO”) making it the oldest centre in Africa and the Middle East.  The latest CRCICA rules came into force in 2011, and are based on the UNCITRAL rules with some minor amendments emanating mainly from the centre’s role as an arbitral institution and an appointing authority.  In addition to administering commercial arbitrations, CRCICA arbitration is provided for in a number of bilateral investment treaties, many of which do not involve Egypt as a party.


As noted, there are various arbitration centres in the region, many of which have experience administering arbitrations in Oman.  The fact that there is no arbitration centre in Oman is a particularly peculiar one which leads to the regional centres administering disputes related to Oman taking place both inside and outside of the country.  It should also be mentioned that all the centres noted above, including the ICC which is a representative office, have space to hold hearings.  The fact that there is no hearing centre in Oman is a disadvantage; when parties hold their hearings in Oman, this takes place in hotels or in law offices.