Oman Labour Law
Chapter 3 of the Oman Labour Law issued by Royal Decree 35 of 2003, as amended, (“OLL”) deals with the management of employees. Article 33 of the OLL provides that an employer is required to provide its employees with access to medical facilities in the establishment. Additionally, if the number of employees in one place exceeds one hundred, the employer shall employ a qualified nurse for providing medical aid and shall assign a doctor to visit and treat the employees at a designated place prepared for such purpose. The employer must also provide the employees with the medical treatment free of charge.
If the number of the employees is more than five hundred, the employer shall, in addition to the above, provide the employees with all other means of treatment, including the assistance of specialist doctors or surgical operations or provide the required medicine, free of any charge to employees. However, the employer is not required to pay the costs for dental, ophthalmic and maternity treatment. If the employee is treated in a government hospital or a private clinic, the employer must pay the costs of treatment, medicine and inpatient care, in accordance with the regulations and financial rules applied by the hospitals, subject to the provisions of the laws on social security insurance.
Accordingly, Article 33 of the OLL creates the legal obligation on the part of the employer to bear the expenses of the employee at a government or private hospital, including the expenses of treatment, medicine and stay in the hospital, subject to the laws in respect of social security.
Medical Insurance for Expatriate Employees
An employer is required to provide medical insurance for its expatriate employees. The employer may satisfy this legal obligation in relation to the payment of medical treatment for expatriate employees by providing medical insurance for its employees with a third party insurer, which insurer would pay the government or private hospital directly when the employee receives medical treatment at these health institutions. The employer may also opt for establishing an arrangement with particular designated medical institutions to provide medical services to its employees and the employer would then settle the dues directly with the relevant medical institution.
Medical Insurance for Omani Employees
In the ordinary course, an employer is not obligated to provide medical insurance to an Omani employee, as Omani nationals are entitled to free medical treatment at all government hospitals. Additionally, all Omani employees are covered under social insurance provided by the Public Authority for Social Insurance (“PASI”).
The Social Security Insurance Law, issued by Royal Decree 72 of 1991, as amended, (“SSIL”) provides the social security system applicable to Omani employees on permanent contracts of employment under the age of retirement. The SSIL deals with two types of security:
1. security against old age, disability and death; and
2. security against occupational injuries and diseases.
In instances of occupational injury, under the SSIL, PASI is required to directly provide the Omani employee with medical care. The employer is required to contribute towards the security against occupational injuries and diseases by paying a monthly subscription to PASI at the rate of 1% of the monthly wages of each Omani employee. Only the employer (and not the employee) shall pay such subscription to PASI.
There is no mandatory requirement under the OLL which requires the employer to ensure health coverage for the employee’s dependents (i.e., spouse and children). Article 33 of the OLL only requires the employer to provide all medical facilities to its employees with the exception of the costs relating to dental, ophthalmic, and maternity treatment.
However, if the employer has been sponsoring the employee’s dependents, the employer is not permitted under the OLL to discontinue such benefit. Article 6 of the OLL provides that an employer may establish a scheme by which its employees acquire benefits more generous than those granted by the OLL, or may provide the employee with other benefits, or may enter into agreements with them, the conditions of which are more generous than those provided for in the OLL. Article 6 further provides that if a condition in the OLL contradicts with any of the condition in such schemes or agreements, the condition that is more generous to the employee shall apply. Therefore, the discontinuation of the dependent’s coverage will be construed as ceasing a benefit that has been previously granted to the employee and thus a violation of the OLL.